indus valley civilization Civilisation

Indus Valley Civilization

Bronze Age in India

Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze by some civilizations. An ancient civilization can be called bronze civilization if they are smelting copper & alloying with tin, arsenic or other metals, Or if they are trading bronze from elsewhere. Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period but in some part of world Copper Age served as transition age from Neolithic to bronze.

Bronze Age Civilizations of India are best known for their Glorious culture. Bronze Age in India is popularly known as Indus Valley Civilization, it was considered to be the first ever urban civilization. Indus valley Civilizations centered on the Indus River and its tributaries, Indus River further extended into the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and southeastern Afghanistan.

For the ease of understanding we can segregate Bronze Age in India (3300 BC – 1400 BC) Or Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BC – 1800 BC) Or Harappan Civilization (3300 BC – 1300 BC)  in following periods (time line):

Based on Archaeological Findings: Indus Valley Civilization (7570 BC to 300 BC)

  • Pre Harappan or Early Food Producing Era 7570 BC-3300 BC
    • Bhirrana (aceramic Neolithic) (7570 BC – 6200 BC)
    • Mehrgarh I (aceramic Neolithic) (7000 BC – 5500 BC)
    • Mehrgarh II-VI (ceramic Neolithic) (5500 BC – 3300 BC)
  • Early Harappan or Regionalisation Era 3300 BC-2600 BC
    • Harappan 1 (Ravi Phase) (3300 BC – 2800 BC)
    • Harappan 2 (Kot Diji Phase, Nausharo I, Mehrgarh VII, Rakhigarhi) (2800 BC – 2600 BC)
  • Mature Harappan or Indus Valley Civilization or Integration Era 2600 BC-1900 BC
    • Harappan 3A (Nausharo II) (2600 BC – 2450 BC)
    • Harappan 3B (2450 BC – 2200 BC)
    • Harappan 3C (2200 BC-1900 BC)
  • Late Harappan or (Cemetery H); Ochre Coloured Pottery or Localisation Era 1900 BC-1300 BC
    • Harappan 4 (1900 BC-1700 BC)
    • Harappan 5 (1700 BC-1300 BC)
  • Post Harappan or Painted Gray Ware, Northern Black Polished Ware (Iron Age) or Indo-Gangetic Tradition (1300 BC-300 BC)

However, since we are focusing on Bronze Age in India so we will discuss timeline between 3300 BC – 1400 BC only.

Harappa Civilization (3300 BC – 1300 BC)

  • Early Harappa (3300 BC-2600 BC)
    • Harappan 1 (Ravi Phase) 3300-2800
    • Harappan 2 (Kot Diji Phase, Nausharo I, Mehrgarh and vinya VII) 2800 BC-2600 BC
  • Mature Harappa (2600 BC-1900 BC) or Integration Era
    • Harappan 3A (Nausharo II) (2600 BC-2450 BC)
    • Harappan 3B (2450 BC-2200 BC)
    • Harappan 3C (2200 BC-1900 BC)
  • Late Harappa (1900 BC-1300 BC)
    • Harappan 4 (1900 BC-1700 BC)
    • Harappan 5 (1700 BC-1300 BC)

The advanced civilization of Harappa in Indus Valley flourished economically, culturally with great & well planned infrastructure for several decades (mature Harappa 2600 BC to Late Harappa 1300 BC). Archaeologist found no evidences of war or State which shows Civilization has voluntary government.

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